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The Indian zoologist Baini Prashad noted the remains of a dog that was discovered during excavations at Harappa , in modern Pakistan.

The researchers collected a wide variety of ancient domestic animal remains which had been buried for 5, years.

Also found was a dog skull; however, its location and depth was not recorded and its age is not known. It is described as being moderately large in size and with an elongated and pointed snout.

It showed a close affinity with the Indian pariah dog; however, a comparison of skull morphology showed that the pariah dog skull was closer to the Indian jackal, but the Harapa dog was closer to the Indian wolf.

It is described as being morphologically similar to Canis tenggerana from Java, and it had earlier been proposed that a population of early dogs had been more widespread across the region.

In New Guinea, no ancient New Guinea singing dog remains have been found. In , the oldest skeletal bones from the Madura Caves were directly carbon dated between 3,—3, YBP, providing firm evidence of the earliest dingo and that dingoes arrived later than had previously been proposed.

When dingoes first arrived, they would have been taken up by Indigenous Australians, who then provided a network for their swift transfer around the continent.

Based on the recorded distribution time for dogs across Tasmania and cats across Australia once Indigenous Australians had acquired them, the dispersal of dingoes from their point of landing until they occupied continental Australia is proposed to have taken only 70 years.

Based on a comparison with these early fossils, dingo morphology has not changed over thousands of years. This suggests that there has been no artificial selection over this period and that the dingo represents an early form of dog.

Studies of the dingo maternal lineage through the use of mitochondrial DNA mDNA as a genetic marker indicate that dingoes are descended from a small founding population [73] through a single founding event [19] or no more than a few founding events [21] either 5,—4, YBP or 10,—4, YBP, [19] or 18,—4, YBP, [20] depending on the mutation rate assumptions used.

They remained isolated from other dogs until the arrival of Europeans. In , a researcher compared the skull morphology of the dingo to those of other dogs and wolves and concluded that the dingo was a primitive dog that may have evolved from either the Indian wolf C.

Dingoes were thought to exist in Australia as wild dogs, rare in New Guinea, but common in Sulawesi and in northern and central Thailand. However, morphological comparisons based on skull measurements had not been undertaken on specimens to provide a better understanding.

A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. All dingo sequences in the study fell under the mDNA haplotype named A29 or were a single mutation from it.

In , a DNA study found evidence that the southeastern dingoes share ancestry with South East Asian dogs, represented by specimens from Borneo and Vietnam, which indicates that southeastern dingoes originated in South East Asia.

The northeastern dingoes share ancestry with European dogs, represented by the Australian Cattle Dog and Portuguese village dogs.

The Australian Cattle Dog is believed to possess dingo ancestry, which would explain this result. The northwestern dingo showing a relationship with European dogs when compared with Asian dogs indicates a shared ancestry with dogs from another region, such as India or Java.

The two different ancestry-sharing patterns found between the southeastern and northwestern dingo populations provides evidence that these two lineages diverged outside of Australia and had different origins in Asia.

In , an mDNA study of ancient dog fossils from the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins of southern China showed that most of the ancient dogs fell within haplogroup A1b, as do the Australian dingoes and the pre-colonial dogs of the Pacific, but in low frequency in China today.

The dogs belonging to this haplogroup were once widely distributed in southern China, then dispersed through Southeast Asia into New Guinea and Oceania, but were replaced in China 2, YBP by dogs of other lineages.

The specimen from the Tianluoshan archaeological site, Zhejiang dates to 7, YBP and possesses one haplotype that is basal to the entire haplogroup A1b lineage.

In , the first whole genome analysis of the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog was undertaken. The genetic evidence is that dingoes arrived in Australia 8, YBP and brought by an unknown human population.

The mDNA haplotype A29, or a mutation one step away, was found in all of the Australian dingoes and New Guinea singing dogs studied, indicating a common female ancestry.

Haplotype H60 had not been previously reported; however, it was one mutation away from haplotype H5 that could be found in East Asian domestic dogs. Only the New Guinea singing dog and dingoes from northeastern Australia showed haplotype H60, which implies a genetic relationship and that the dingo reached Australia from New Guinea.

Haplotype H60 and H3 could be found among the southern Australian dingoes with H3 dominant, but haplotype H3 could only be found in the west of the continent and may represent a separate entry from the northwest.

The existence of a genetic subdivision within the dingo population has been proposed for over two decades but has not been investigated.

Their mDNA provided evidence that they all carried the same mutation inherited from a single female ancestor in the past, and so form a single clade.

Dogs from China, Bali and Kalimantan did not fall within this clade. There are two distinct populations of dingoes in Australia based on both mitochondrial and nuclear evidence.

The dingoes found today in the northwestern part of the Australian continent are estimated to have diverged 8, YBP followed by a divergence of the New Guinea singing dog 7, YBP from the dingoes found today in the southeastern part of the Australian continent.

As the New Guinea singing dog is more closely related to the southeastern dingoes, these divergences are thought to have occurred somewhere in Sahul a landmass which once included Australia, New Guinea and some surrounding islands.

These dates suggest that dingoes spread from Papua New Guinea to Australia over the land bridge at least twice. The lack of fossil evidence from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea can be explained by their tropical climate and acidic soil, as there are generally few fossils found in these regions.

In , a study of dingoes across a wider area found that the New Guinea singing dog female lineage is more closely related to the southeastern dingoes, and its male lineage is more closely related to dingoes found across the rest of the continent, indicating that the dingo lineage has a complex history.

The dates are well before the human Neolithic Expansion through the Malay Peninsula around 5, YBP, and therefore Neolithic humans were not responsible for bringing the dingo to Australia.

The Neolithic included gene flow and the expansion of agriculture, chickens, pigs and domestic dogs — none of which reached Australia.

Similar to the wolf and the husky , the dingo possesses only two copies of this gene, [51] which provides evidence that they arose before the expansion of agriculture.

Earlier studies using other genetic markers had found the indigenous Bali dog more closely aligned with the Australian dingo than to European and Asian breeds, which indicates that the Bali dog was genetically diverse with a diverse history; [89] [90] [91] however, only 1 per cent exhibited the maternal A29 mDNA haplotype.

The Bali dogs support the arrival of their ancestors with the Austronesian expansion and the arrival of other domesticates 4,—3, YBP.

Haplogroup H5 was not found in the village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, but it is common in Taiwan. One H5 specimen from Taiwan clustered with one H60 from Australia with the indication of a common ancestor 5,— YBP and coincides with the expansion of the Daic people of southern China.

The conclusion is that there were two expansions of two types of dogs. Southern China produced the first ancient regional breeds 8, years ago, from which they expanded.

These were then dominated and replaced by a later explosive expansion of genetically diverse dogs that had been bred in Southeast Asia.

If so, the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog, which pre-dates the dogs of Island Southeast Asia, would reflect the last vestiges of the earlier ancient breeds.

Some dog breeds, including the dingo and the Basenji, are almost as genetically divergent from other dogs as the dog is from the wolf; [50] however, this distinctiveness could be reflecting geographic isolation from the admixture that later occurred in other dogs in their regions.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Meyer , [3]. Main article: New Guinea singing dog. See also: Polynesian Dog. Marc Oxenham; Hallie Buckley eds.

Oxford UK: Routledge. Taxonomy of Australian Mammals. Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika.

Dykischen, Leipzig. Port Jackson. Kingdom, vol. Phillip's Voy. Australian Faunal Directory. Retrieved 6 May Port Jackson, N.

Peron 6C LeSueur. Blumenbach, J. Sechste Auflage. Johann Christian Dieterich, Göttingen. Sixth Edition. Translation: "Dingo. The New Holland dog.

Is similar, especially in the head and shoulders, as a fox. Coasts Austr. Recent DNA studies, for example, suggest that the animals arrived in Australia from Borneo and Sulawesi between and 12, years ago.

Meanwhile, a report found that dingoes lack multiple copies of a starch digestion gene ; their doggie cousins developed multiple copies while living with agricultural people.

That left the Lapita or the hunter-gatherer Toalean people as the main contenders. However, archaeological evidence from across Australia and Southeast Asia seems to eliminate the Lapita: There is no evidence of Lapita pottery in Australia, let alone the pigs and chickens the people brought with them wherever they traveled.

That left the Toalean people. Here, the archaeological data bolster the case: Similarities in rock art between Sulawesi and Borneo indicate a close connection between the people.

By Jeffrey Brainard Oct. By Jocelyn Kaiser Sep. By Rebekah Tuchscherer Sep. All rights Reserved. They also co-occur in the same territory as the introduced European red fox and feral cat, but little is known about the relationships between these three.

Dingoes and their hybrids can drive off foxes from sources of water and occasionally eat feral cats.

Dingoes can be killed by buffalo and cattle goring and kicking them, from snake bite, and predation on their pups by wedge-tailed eagles. Like all domestic dogs, dingoes tend towards phonetic communication.

However, in contrast to domestic dogs, dingoes howl and whimper more, and bark less. Eight sound classes with 19 sound types have been identified.

Compared to most domestic dogs, the bark of a dingo is short and monosyllabic, and is rarely used. Dog barking has always been distinct from wolf barking.

In addition, barking is almost exclusively used for giving warnings. Warn-barking in a homotypical sequence and a kind of "warn-howling" in a heterotypical sequence have also been observed.

The bark-howling starts with several barks and then fades into a rising and ebbing howl and is probably similar to coughing used to warn the puppies and members of the pack.

Additionally, dingoes emit a sort of "wailing" sound, which they mostly use when approaching a watering hole , probably to warn already present dingoes.

According to the present state of knowledge, getting Australian dingoes to bark more frequently by putting them in contact with other domestic dogs is not possible.

However, German zoologist Alfred Brehm reported a dingo that learned the more "typical" form of barking and how to use it, while its brother did not.

Dingoes have three basic forms of howling moans, bark-howls, and snuffs with at least 10 variations. Usually, three kinds of howls are distinguished: long and persistent, rising and ebbing, and short and abrupt.

Observations have shown that each kind of howling has several variations, though their purpose is unknown. The frequency of howling varies with the season and time of day, and is also influenced by breeding , migration , lactation , social stability, and dispersal behaviour.

Howling can be more frequent in times of food shortage, because the dogs become more widely distributed within their home range.

Additionally, howling seems to have a group function, and is sometimes an expression of joy for example, greeting-howls. Overall, howling was observed less frequently in dingoes than among grey wolves.

It may happen that one dog will begin to howl, and several or all other dogs will howl back and bark from time to time.

In the wilderness , dingoes howl over long distances to attract other members of the pack, to find other dogs, or to keep intruders at bay.

Dingoes howl in chorus with significant pitches, and with increasing number of pack members, the variability of pitches also increases.

Similar to many domestic dogs, a reactive usage of defensive growling is only rarely observed. Growling very often occurs in combination with other sounds, and has been observed almost exclusively in swooshing noises similar to barking.

During observations in Germany , dingoes were heard to produce a sound that observers have called Schrappen. It was only observed in an agonistic context, mostly as a defence against obtrusive pups or for defending resources.

It was described as a bite intention, during which the receiver is never touched or hurt. Only a clashing of the teeth could be heard. Aside from vocal communication, dingoes communicate, like all domestic dogs, via scent marking specific objects for example, Spinifex or places such as waters, trails, and hunting grounds using chemical signals from their urine , feces, and scent glands.

Males scent mark more frequently than females, especially during the mating season. They also scent rub , whereby a dog rolls its neck, shoulders, or back on something that is usually associated with food or the scent markings of other dogs.

Unlike wolves, dingoes can react to social cues and gestures from humans. Dingoes tend to be nocturnal in warmer regions, but less so in cooler areas.

Their main period of activity is around dusk and dawn. The periods of activity are short often less than 1 hour with short times of resting.

Dingoes have two kinds of movement: a searching movement apparently associated with hunting and an exploratory movement probably for contact and communication with other dogs.

The dingo's social behaviour is about as flexible as that of a coyote or grey wolf, which is perhaps one of the reasons the dingo was originally believed to have descended from the Indian wolf.

A dingo pack usually consists of a mated pair, their offspring from the current year, and sometimes offspring from the previous year.

Where conditions are favourable among dingo packs, the pack is stable with a distinct territory and little overlap between neighbours.

Similar to other canids, a dingo pack largely consists of a mated pair, their current year's offspring, and occasionally a previous year's offspring.

Dingoes breed once annually, depending on the estrous cycle of the females, which according to most sources, only come in heat once per year.

Dingo females can come in heat twice per year, but can only be pregnant once a year, with the second time only seeming to be pregnant.

Males are virile throughout the year in most regions, but have a lower sperm production during the summer in most cases. During studies on dingoes from the Eastern Highlands and Central Australia in captivity, no specific breeding cycle could be observed.

All were potent throughout the year. The breeding was only regulated by the heat of the females. A rise in testosterone was observed in the males during the breeding season, but this was attributed to the heat of the females and copulation.

In contrast to the captive dingoes, captured dingo males from Central Australia did show evidence of a male breeding cycle. Those dingoes showed no interest in females in heat this time other domestic dogs outside of the mating season January to July and did not breed with them.

The mating season usually occurs in Australia between March and May according to other sources between April and June.

During this time, dingoes may actively defend their territories using vocalisations, dominance behaviour, growling, and barking.

Most females in the wild start breeding at the age of 2 years. Within packs, the alpha female tends to go into heat before subordinates and actively suppresses mating attempts by other females.

Males become sexually mature between the ages of 1 and 3 years. The precise start of breeding varies depending on age, social status, geographic range, and seasonal conditions.

Among dingoes in captivity, the pre-estrus was observed to last 10—12 days. However, the pre-estrus may last as long as 60 days in the wild.

In general, the only dingoes in a pack that successfully breed are the alpha pair, and the other pack members help with raising the pups.

Subordinates are actively prevented from breeding by the alpha pair and some subordinate females have a false pregnancy. Low-ranking or solitary dingoes can successfully breed if the pack structure breaks up.

The gestation period lasts for 61—69 days and the size of the litter can range from one to 10 usually five pups, with the number of males born tending to be higher than that of females.

Pups of subordinate females usually get killed by the alpha female, which causes the population increase to be low even in good times.

This behaviour possibly developed as an adaptation to the fluctuating environmental conditions in Australia. Pups are usually born between May and August the winter period , but in tropical regions, breeding can occur at any time of the year.

At the age of 3 weeks, the pups leave the den for the first time, and leave it completely at 8 weeks. In Australia, dens are mostly underground.

Reports exist of dens in abandoned rabbit burrows, rock formations, under boulders in dry creeks, under large spinifex , in hollow logs, and augmented burrows of monitor lizards and wombat burrows.

The transition to consuming solid food is normally accompanied by all members of the pack during the age of 9 to 12 weeks. Apart from their own experiences, pups also learn through observation.

Dingoes usually remain in one area and do not undergo seasonal migrations. However, during times of famine , even in normally "safe" areas, dingoes travel into pastoral areas, where intensive, human-induced control measures are undertaken.

In Western Australia in the s, young dogs were found to travel for long distances when necessary. Therefore, travelling dingoes had lower chances of survival in foreign territories, and they are apparently unlikely to survive long migrations through occupied territories.

The rarity of long migration routes seemed to confirm this. During investigations in the Nullarbor Plain, even longer migration routes were recorded.

Dingoes generally avoid conflict with humans, but they are large enough to be dangerous. Most attacks involve people feeding wild dingoes, particularly on Fraser Island, which is a special centre of dingo-related tourism.

The vast majority of dingo attacks are minor in nature, but some can be major, and a few have been fatal: the death of 2-month-old Azaria Chamberlain in the Northern Territory in is one of them.

Many Australian national parks have signs advising visitors not to feed wildlife, partly because this practice is not healthy for the animals, and partly because it may encourage undesirable behaviour, such as snatching or biting by dingoes, kangaroos, goannas , and some birds.

Some researchers propose that the dingo caused the extinction of the thylacine , the Tasmanian devil , and the Tasmanian native hen from mainland Australia because of the correlation in space and time with the dingo's arrival.

Recent studies have questioned this proposal, suggesting that climate change and increasing human populations may have been the cause.

This might be connected to the dingo's way of hunting and the size of their favoured prey, as well as to the low number of dingoes in the time before European colonisation.

The assumption that dingoes and thylacines were competitors for the same prey stems from their external similarities; the thylacine had a stronger and more efficient bite, but was probably dependent on relatively small prey, while the dingo's stronger skull and neck would have allowed it to bring down larger prey.

Also, wild dingo populations might have had demographic support from conspecific living with humans.

The extinction of the thylacine on the continent around 2, years ago has also been linked to changes in climate and land use by the Aborigines. Naming the dingo as the cause of the extinction is plausible, but significant morphological differences between the two suggest that the ecological overlapping of both species might be exaggerated.

The dingo has the dentition of a generalist , while the thylacine had the dentition of a specialist carnivore without any signs of consumption of carrion or bones.

This theory does not explain how the Tasmanian devil and the dingo coexisted on the same continent until about years ago, when the dingo supposedly caused the Tasmanian devil's demise.

The group dynamics of dingoes should have successfully kept devils away from carrion, and since dingoes are able to break bones, little would have been left for the devils to scavenge.

Additionally, devils are successful hunters of small- to medium-sized prey, so overlapping of the species should have occurred in this area, too.

Furthermore, the arguments that the dingo caused the extinction of the thylacine, the devil, and the hen are in direct conflict with each other.

If the dingo were really so similar to the thylacine and the Tasmanian devil in its ecological role and suppressed both, then coexisting with both for such an extended time is strange.

Although this is a possible result of the dingo's introduction, critics regard the evidence for this as insubstantial. In , a genetic study found that the population of the northwestern dingoes had commenced expanding since 4,—6, years ago.

This was proposed to be due either to their first arrival in Australia or to the commencement of the extinction of the thylacine, with the dingo expanding into the thylacine's former range.

In , the Australian National Kennel Council recognised a dingo breed standard within its Hounds group. Dingoes can be very tame when they come in frequent contact with humans.

Many indigenous Australians and early European settlers lived alongside dingoes. Indigenous Australians would take dingo pups from the den and tame them until sexual maturity and the dogs would leave.

He also reported about dingoes that were aggressive and completely uncontrollable, but he was of the opinion that these reports "should not get more attention than they deserve," since the behaviour depends on how the dingo was raised since early puppyhood.

He believed that these dogs could become very decent pets. The ownership of dingoes as pets and their breeding is widely criticised.

The main criticism is that the activities and the resulting consequences of the dingo conservation groups, "dingo farms" and legislation for legal ownership of dingoes for people in public, is seen to be an additional threat to the survival of the pure dingoes.

This fear exists because the majority of these breeding activities effectively expedite the interbreeding of dingoes and other domestic dogs, when the identification of a pure dingo is not absolutely correct respectively when hybrids are sold as "pure" dingoes.

Supporters of breeding programmes are only mildly optimistic about a successful outcome. Success in the form of a population viable for future re-wilding cannot be easily accomplished.

An additional threat is that breeders may unconsciously select tamer dingoes by breeding individuals who are easier to manage. Therefore, it may happen that, over the years, the tame populations may become less suitable for living in the wild than their ancestors.

In addition, a loss of genetic diversity thus resulting in a higher susceptibility to diseases might occur due to a small founding population, and negative changes could occur simply because the dogs were captive-bred.

Furthermore, some features that are necessary for survival in the wild, such as hunting techniques, might "fade" under the conditions of domestication, because they are no longer needed.

Pet dingoes are likely to escape. The dingo is regarded as part of the native Australian fauna by many environmentalists and biologists , as these dogs existed on the continent before the arrival of the Europeans and a mutual adaptation of the dingoes and their surrounding ecosystems had occurred.

Much of the present place of wild dogs in the Australian ecosystem, especially in the urban areas, remains unknown.

Although the ecological role of dingoes in Northern and Central Australia is well understood, the same does not apply to the role of wild dogs in the east of the continent.

In contrast to some claims, [] dingoes are assumed to have a positive impact on biodiversity in areas where feral foxes are present.

Dingoes are regarded as apex predators and possibly perform an ecological key function. Likely with increasing evidence from scientific research , they control the diversity of the ecosystem by limiting the number of prey and keeping the competition in check.

Wild dogs hunt feral livestock such as goats and pigs, as well as native prey and introduced animals. The low number of feral goats in Northern Australia is possibly caused by the presence of the dingoes, but whether they control the goats' numbers is still disputable.

Studies from in the northern wet forests of Australia found the dingoes there did not reduce the number of feral pigs , but their predation only affects the pig population together with the presence of water buffaloes which hinder the pigs' access to food.

Observations concerning the mutual impact of dingoes and red fox and cat populations suggest dingoes limit the access of foxes and cats to certain resources.

As a result, a disappearance of the dingoes may cause an increase of red fox and feral cat numbers, and therefore, a higher pressure on native animals.

These studies found the presence of dingoes is one of the factors that keep fox numbers in an area low, and therefore reduces pressure on native animals, which then do not disappear from the area.

The countrywide numbers of red foxes are especially high where dingo numbers are low, but other factors might responsible for this, depending on the area.

Also, dingoes can live with red foxes and feral cats without reducing their numbers in areas with sufficient food resources for example, high rabbit numbers and hiding places.

Nearly nothing is known about the relationship of wild dogs and feral cats, except both mostly live in the same areas. Although wild dogs also eat cats, whether this affects the cat populations is not known.

Additionally, the disappearance of dingoes might increase the prevalence of kangaroo, rabbit, and Australian brushturkey numbers.

In the areas outside the Dingo Fence, the number of dingoes and emus is lower than in the areas inside. However, the numbers changed depending on the habitat.

Since the environment is the same on both sides of the fence, the dingo was assumed to be a strong factor for the regulation of these species. In addition, the presence of the Australian brushturkey in Queensland increased significantly after dingo baiting was conducted.

Cultural opinions about the dingo are often based on its perceived "cunning", and the idea that it is an intermediate between civilisation and wildness.

Some of the early European settlers looked on dingoes as domestic dogs, while others thought they were more like wolves.

Over the years, dingoes began to attack sheep, and their relationship to the Europeans changed very quickly; they were regarded as devious and cowardly, since they did not fight bravely in the eyes of the Europeans, and vanished into the bush.

Over the years, dingo trappers gained some prestige for their work, especially when they managed to kill hard-to-catch dingoes.

Dingoes were associated with thieves, vagabonds , bushrangers , and parliamentary opponents. From the s, politicians began calling their opponents "dingo", meaning they were cowardly and treacherous, and it has become a popular form of attack since then.

The image of the dingo has ranged among some groups from the instructive [] to the demonic. Ceremonies like a keen at the Cape York Peninsula in the form of howling [89] and dreamtime stories are connected to the dingo, which were passed down through the generations.

The dingo plays a prominent role in the Dreamtime stories of indigenous Australians, [27] but it is rarely depicted in their cave paintings when compared with the extinct thylacine.

The dingoes "are what we would be if we were not what we are. Similar to how Europeans acquired dingoes, the Aboriginal people of Australia acquired dogs from the immigrants very quickly.

This process was so fast that Francis Barrallier surveyor on early expeditions around the colony at Port Jackson discovered in that five dogs of European origin were there before him.

Most of the published myths originate from the Western Desert and show a remarkable complexity. In some stories, dingoes are the central characters, while in others, they are only minor ones.

One time, an ancestor from the Dreamtime created humans and dingoes or gave them their current shape. Stories mention creation, socially acceptable behaviour, and explanations why some things are the way they are.

Myths exist about shapeshifters human to dingo or vice versa , "dingo-people", and the creation of certain landscapes or elements of those landscapes, like waterholes or mountains.

Livestock farming commenced expanding across Australia from the early s, which led to conflict between the dingo and graziers. Sheep, and to a lesser extent cattle, are an easy target for dingoes.

The pastoralists and the government bodies that support this industry have shot, trapped, and poisoned dingoes or destroyed dingo pups in their dens.

After two centuries of persecution, the dingo or dingo—dog hybrids can still be found across most of the continent.

Research on the real extent of the damage and the reason for this problem only started recently. Livestock can die from many causes, and when the carcass is found, determining with certainty the cause of death is often difficult.

Since the outcome of an attack on livestock depends to a high degree on the behaviour and experience of the predator and the prey, only direct observation is certain to determine whether an attack was by dingoes or other domestic dogs.

Even the existence of remnants of the prey in the scat of wild dogs does not prove they are pests, since wild dogs also eat carrion.

The cattle industry can tolerate low to moderate, and sometimes high, grades [ clarification needed ] of wild dogs therefore dingoes are not so easily regarded as pests in these areas.

In the case of sheep and goats, a zero-tolerance attitude is common. The biggest threats are dogs that live inside or near the paddock areas. The extent of sheep loss is hard to determine due to the wide pasture lands in some parts of Australia.

Therefore, factors such as availability of native prey, as well as the defending behaviour and health of the cattle, play an important role in the number of losses.

A study in Central Australia in confirmed that dingoes only have a low impact on cattle numbers when a sufficient supply of other prey such as kangaroos and rabbits is available.

In some parts of Australia, the loss of calves is assumed to be minimised if horned cattle are used instead of polled. Calves usually suffer less lethal wounds than sheep due to their size and the protection by the adult cattle, so have a higher chance of surviving an attack.

As a result, the evidence of a dog attack may only be discovered after the cattle have been herded back into the enclosure, [ clarification needed ] and signs such as bitten ears, tails, and other wounds are discovered.

The opinions of cattle owners regarding dingoes are more variable than those of sheep owners. Some cattle owners believe that the weakened mother losing her calf is better in times of drought so that she does not have to care for her calf, too.

Therefore, these owners are more hesitant to kill dingoes. Furthermore, the mortality rate of calves has many possible causes, and discriminating between them is difficult.

The only reliable method to document the damage would be to document all pregnant cows, then observe their development and those of their calves.

Loss of livestock is, therefore, not necessarily caused by the occurrence of dingoes and is independent from wild dogs.

Domestic dogs are the only terrestrial predators in Australia that are big enough to kill fully grown sheep, and only a few sheep manage to recover from the severe injuries.

In the case of lambs, death can have many causes apart from attacks by predators, which are blamed for the deaths because they eat from the carcasses.

Although attacks by red foxes are possible, such attacks are more rare than previously thought. Therefore, the damage to the livestock industry does not correlate to the numbers of wild dogs in an area except that no damage occurs where no wild dogs occur [].

The calf losses did not correlate with increased dingo activity, and the cattle diseases pestivirus and leptospirosis were a major cause.

Dingoes then scavenged on the carcasses. There was also evidence of dingo predation on calves. Among the indigenous Australians, dingoes were also used as hunting aids, living hot water bottles , and camp dogs.

Their scalps were used as a kind of currency , their teeth were traditionally used for decorative purposes, and their fur for traditional costumes.

Sometimes "pure" dingoes are important for tourism , when they are used to attract visitors. However, this seems to be common only on Fraser Island, where the dingoes are extensively used as a symbol to enhance the attraction of the island.

Tourists are drawn to the experience of personally interacting with dingoes. Pictures of dingoes appear on brochures, many websites, and postcards advertising the island.

The dingo is recognised as a native animal under the laws of all Australian jurisdictions. Australia has over national parks of which all but six are managed by the states and territories.

Dingo attacks on livestock led to widescale efforts to repel them from areas with intensive agricultural usage, and all states and territories have enacted laws for the control of dingoes.

Established methods for the control of dingoes in sheep areas entailed the employment of specific workers on every property.

The job of these people who were nicknamed "doggers" was to reduce the number of dingoes by using steel traps , baits , firearms and other methods.

The responsibility for the control of wild dogs lay solely in the hands of the landowners. At the same time, the government was forced to control the number of dingoes.

As a result, a number of measures for the control of dingoes developed over time. It was also considered that dingoes travel over long distances to reach areas with richer prey populations, and the control methods were often concentrated along "paths" or "trails" and in areas that were far away from sheep areas.

All dingoes were regarded as a potential danger and were hunted. Apart from the introduction of the poison extensively used for 40 years and nicknamed "doggone" , the methods and strategies for controlling wild dogs have changed little over time.

Information concerning cultural importance to indigenous people and the importance of dingoes and the impact of control measures on other species is also lacking in some areas.

Historically, the attitudes and needs of indigenous people were not taken into account when dingoes were controlled. Other factors that might be taken into account are the genetic status degree of interbreeding of dingoes in these areas, ownership and land usage, as well as a reduction of killing measures to areas outside of the zones.

However, most control measures and the appropriate studies are there to minimise the loss of livestock and not to protect dingoes.

Increasing pressure from environmentalists against the random killing of dingoes, as well as the impact on other animals, demanded that more information needed to be gathered to prove the necessity of control measures and to disprove the claim of unnecessary killings.

Today, permanent population control is regarded as necessary to reduce the impact of all wild dogs and to ensure the survival of the "pure" dingo in the wild.

To protect livestock, livestock guardian dogs for example, Maremmas , donkeys , alpacas and llamas are used.

Dingo asian

Dingo Asian

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The research also suggests the New Guinea singing dog, a smaller version of the dingo, travelled along the same land route to arrive in New Guinea.

The results show domestic dogs came from southern China over 10, years ago. They also made the journey much earlier. This study really confirms an enigma which has been with us with dingos all the time: where did the animal come from, or more specifically, how did it get here?

Despite a sparse archaeological record for dog species in southeast Asia and Polynesia, there is a direct link between the spread of the Neolithic culture, Austronesian languages and the arrival of dogs in the region.

But the researchers claim the dingo arrived in Australia before the Neolithic period, possibly during early trade between pre-Neolithic groups.

They admit there is more work to be done to find out how the dingo was introduced to Australia, and whether it arrived as a domestic or wild dog.

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Ding et al. Brown et al. Rather, the common ancestry of European breed dogs and Southeast Asian indigenous dogs was interpreted to trace no further back that the Neolithic period and possibly to reflect post-Victorian use of East Asian dogs in the creation of Western Breeds.

In light of findings from this study, it seems clear that both post-Victorian and Neolithic exchanges link eastern and western Eurasian dogs.

However, the cause of post-Victorian haplotype sharing between Western breed dogs and Southeast Asian village dogs apparently reflects very recent introduction of Western dogs to the East rather than extraction of Eastern dogs to create Western breeds during the Victorian Era.

The best evidence for this interpretation was that haplotypes shared between Breed dogs and Southeast Asian village dogs were otherwise associated with European and American, but not Asian, breeds.

These haplotypes tended also to be of the H1 haplogroup and shared among multiple Southeast Asian village dog populations, whereas other haplotypes tended to be geographically unique to populations within Southeast Asia.

More importantly, this finding, afforded by combining the markers of Ding et al. We estimated the age of the split to fall somewhere between the more speculative estimates by Ding et al.

Thus, although future studies are needed to combine the Y SNPs and STR markers in a geographically broader sampling of dogs than was considered here, our findings support the hypothesis for a massive Neolithic expansion of dogs from Southeast Asia rather than a Paleolithic origin of dogs from this region.

More generally, our findings that modern Eurasian continental dog populations reflect some degree of ancient admixture and that more recently founded Island populations reflect greater genetic isolation are in general agreement with the conclusions of a recent genome-wide study of Breed dogs Larson et al.

However, our findings also lead us to be far more optimistic than Larson et al. For example, Brown et al. This study further demonstrated the ability to use these high-resolution markers to distinguish post-Victorian gene flow from that stemming from more ancient migrations.

Although the Y chromosome markers used in this study were limited in reflecting only a single paternal genealogy, the same principle can be applied in the future to autosomal haplotypes composed of multiple closely linked STRs and SNPs, providing replicate genealogies for statistically robust inferences.

Our data also revealed aspects of the prehistory of dogs and, by extension, humans in Island Southeast Asia and Oceana.

In general, our Y-chromosome aging of dog populations in Island Southeast Asia agreed with previous estimates for timing of the Austronesian expansion.

Sample size was not large enough in the Philippines or Brunei to similarly age these populations nor was it clear the extent to which the haplotype clustering among these populations, Bali, and Thailand reflected colonization from a single source versus subsequent gene flow among them.

The somewhat later split date than TMRCA estimated here for the Bali dogs suggests a protracted period of genetic exchange postdating their initial establishment.

Nevertheless, the close clustering of the Philippines, Bali, and Brunei with Thailand but not Taiwan was more consistent with a mainland than Taiwanese origin of Island Southeast Asian dogs.

Thus, together, our Y chromosome and mtDNA findings support the general conclusion of Oskarsson et al. However, our findings also suggest that the introduction of dingoes to Australia and New Guinea could reflect a distinct event, not necessarily related in time or point of origin to the spread of dogs to Island Southeast Asia.

Taiwan remains a viable candidate for the source for this particular migration. Both the haplogroup network and the Bayesian estimates of population splitting indicated a comparably ancient divergence of dingoes from the other populations.

Dingoes also carry a unique haplogroup, derived from a haplogroup H5 not sampled in Island Southeast Asia, arguing against their proximate origin from Island Southeast Asia.

The H5 haplogroup was relatively common in Taiwan, however, and the STR types in that haplogroup also were highly divergent from one another, consistent with considerable antiquity relative to the shallow genealogies observed in other haplogroups and locations.

On the other hand, the timing also would be consistent with origins of both the dingo and NGSD and Taiwanese dogs from the same expansion of Daic people of southern China Li et al.

The H5 type was reported previously in low frequency in dogs from Cambodia, China, and Siberia and in high frequency in Japan Ding et al. Because no other domesticates or human commensals made it to ancient Australia, determining the origins of dingoes would provide a critically important piece in the puzzle regarding the interchange between Indigenous Australian and Austronesian humans preceding the peopling of Polynesia Corbett ; Bellwood ; Oskarsson et al.

By using the known-age dingo population in Australia for calibration, we confirmed the EMRs of dog Y chromosome STRs to be similar on a per-generation basis and much more rapid in absolute time to those of humans, which have been used to date numerous late-Pleistocene and -Holocene events.

Our estimates, in turn, enabled us to age the H1 mutation associated with modern European dogs and to reject the assumption that its origin predated the Neolithic.

This finding argues against the hypothesis that dogs were originally domesticated in Southeast Asia and suggests, instead, that a Neolithic expansion of dogs from Southeast Asia partially replaced the earliest dogs from the West.

We further hypothesize that, although dogs did not originate in Southeast Asia, they underwent a significant evolutionary transformation in this region that enabled them to demographically dominate and largely replace earlier western forms and that this transformation could have been central to the evolution dog diversity.

The dogs of southern China could have been the first large population to have been reproductively isolated from wolves Canis lupus , possibly accelerating their phenotypic divergence and diversification as a domesticate.

Rapid spread of such a dog in combination with interbreeding with ancient western dogs could have produced a variety of forms, laying the basis for the first ancient regional breeds, which were first evident approximately 8, years ago Larson et al.

If so, the dingo and NGSD, which our data suggest predated the dogs of Island Southeast Asia, would reflect the last vestiges of this early Southeast Asian dog before its reacquaintance with western continental lineages.

In total, we used male dogs, including 89 dingoes and 18 NGSDs genotyped for this study, along with 5 dingoes and male dogs used in a previous study Brown et al.

We extracted DNA from muscle tissue of 89 new dingoes primarily from the interior of northwestern Australia, the part of the continent where genetic purity of dingoes is high Stephens We applied a third, confirmatory criterion in this study based on mtDNA D-loop sequences, which were diagnostic for indigenous matrilines and therefore more sensitive than the other methods for detecting historical matrilineal introgression Savolainen et al.

The 18 NGSD samples were buccal swabs of individuals bred in captivity, originating from only 1—7 male founders Koler-Matznick et al. Tissue DNA was extracted according to methods of Ivanova et al.

We amplified, via polymerase chain reaction PCR , and sequenced a bp fragment of the mtDNA D loop of the new dingoes using previously published primers Savolainen et al.

The 29 SNPs included 11 used by Brown et al. We successfully genotyped tissue-extracted DNA including most of the dingo samples in a single multiplex of all 29 loci and initially attempted to genotype swab samples in locus multiplexes as well.

However, many of the swab samples failed to produce full genotypes or at least unambiguous ones and were therefore rerun using a subset of 15 markers necessary to resolve haplotypes within the Southeast Asian clade supplementary table S3 , Supplementary Material online.

All samples had been determined to be in the Southeast Asian clade based on an earlier round of genotyping, either in the study by Brown et al.

To illustrate the genealogical relationships among Y chromosome haplotypes and haplogroups Y-STR haplotypes sharing the same Y-SNP haplotype , we constructed statistical parsimony networks with the median joining MJ algorithm implemented in Networks v 4.

Although the reduced median algorithm performs better at resolving deeper rooting lineages when only STRs are used, the MJ approach is better suited for using locus weighting information to resolve homoplasy in closely clustered haplogroups Forster et al.

Because we incorporated 29 biallelic unique event polymorphisms SNPs in our analysis, we were confident in the deeper phylogenetic structure i.

As per Brown et al. Specifically, we weighted STR loci as follows: — Breed dogs were included in the first network, along with NGSDs and Iranian village dogs the small subset from Brown et al.

A second network using only Southeast Asian village dogs and Australian dingoes was constructed and provided the basis for mutation rate estimates.

The SE of the estimate was estimated using the tree-specific algorithm of Saillard et al. Australian dingoes are known to have been established and isolated for 5,—3, years Corbett ; Bellwood ; Savolainen et al.

Ancestral haplotypes were identified based on internal placement and centrality in a given haplogroup within the network, frequency, and on the sharing between dingoes and NGSDs Corbett A similar approach was used with the Bali dogs for comparison despite the less certain isolation history of the population, presuming that dogs arose with the first Austronesian colonizations 4,—3, years ago Bellwood ; Karafet et al.

Although this approach to estimating mutation rate is relatively robust to the existence of population structure, certain demographic scenarios result in underestimated SEs Cox Moreover, the estimates assume particular ancestor-descendent relationships reflected in the network.

Therefore, we used a complimentary approach that was less dependent upon assumptions about specific ancestor-descendent relationships among haplotypes except for the need to assume an ancestral node.

Specifically, for the main haplogroup within each of the dingo and Bali dog populations, we calculated the ASD in repeat length for all loci between a presumed ancestral haplotype and all descendent haplotypes Zhivotovsky et al.

The ASD has the expected value of the effective i. We conducted three sets of analyses. First dingoes, then Bali dogs, were analyzed independently, followed by a population-wide analysis of all Southeast Asian village dogs and dingoes.

We conducted analyses using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm of Wilson et al. Given that dingoes arose at least 3, years ago from a small number of founders, their demographic history likely included an exponential growth phase followed by slowing growth and constant size once carrying capacity was reached.

Dingo remains dated across the continent by approximately 3, BP Fillios et al. Nevertheless, we initially employed the most flexible model that of constant ancestral size followed by exponential increase.

These runs were compared with runs of the constant-population size model to assess sensitivity of posteriors to model choice.

We chose STR mutation rate priors following gamma distributions with shape parameter set to 1 to ensure values approaching zero were well sampled regardless of the expected value, which was controlled by varying the scale parameter.

Prior ranges were chosen to include expected per-generation values estimated for human Y STRs, 0. For comparison, gamma 1.

The mutation rates were allowed to vary across loci. We used SNPs i. Convergence was confirmed through replicate runs initiated with different random number seeds.

Likelihoods and posterior distributions were evaluated in program Tracer v 1. We took advantage of the entire Australasian dog data set to investigate splitting times of the various island populations.

In particular, we tested the prediction that the splitting time estimated for dingoes in this analysis would be the same as the TMRCA of the analysis based strictly on the dingo data set, both of which we assumed would be equal to the time since establishment of that population.

In addition, we assessed the extent to which the Bali dog population experienced immigration after establishment through comparison of the within-population TMRCA and the estimated splitting time.

Our expectation was that if the Bali population had remained isolated since founding 4,—3, years ago Bellwood ; Karafet et al. For comparison to mutation rates in human Y STR markers, the per-year mutation rate estimates were transformed to per-generation estimates assuming generation time ranged 2—4 years Corbett and, conservatively, that the TMRCA for dingoes ranged generations 3, years of 4-year generations to 2, generations 5, years of 2-year generations.

Similarly, Bali-based estimates were transformed to or 2, generations reflecting their 4, to 3, BP founding time. For samples, the authors thank the late A.

Wilton, L. Allen, J. For technical assistance, they thank J. Malvick, T. Kun, and B. Two anonymous reviewers provided helpful suggestions.

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Volume Article Contents Abstract. Materials and Methods. They also disagree with Crowther, based on the overlap between dogs and dingoes in their morphology, in their ability to easily hybridise with each other, and that they show the signs of domestication by both having a cranium of smaller capacity than their progenitor, the wolf.

Given that Canis familiaris Linnaeus has date priority over Canis dingo Meyer , they regard the dingo as a junior taxonomic synonym for the dog Canis familiaris [2] i.

Further, the dingo is regarded as a feral dog because it descended from domesticated ancestors. In , the palaeontologists Xiaoming Wang and Richard H.

Tedford propose that the dog could be taxonomically classified as Canis lupus familiaris under the Biological Species Concept because the dog can interbreed with the grey wolf Canis lupus , and classified as Canis familiaris under the Evolutionary Species Concept because the dog has commenced down a separate evolutionary pathway to the grey wolf.

In , the Taxonomy of Australian Mammals classed the dingo as Canis familiaris. Whole genome sequencing indicates the dog to be a genetically divergent subspecies of the grey wolf, [50] the dog is not a descendant of the extant grey wolf, but these are sister taxa which share a common ancestor from a ghost population of wolves that went extinct at the end of the Late Pleistocene , [51] and the dog and the dingo are not separate species.

A taxonomic synonym is a name that applies to a taxon that now goes by a different name. In , W. Christopher Wozencraft in the third edition of Mammal Species of the World listed under the wolf Canis lupus the subspecies dingo along with its proposed taxonomic synonyms:.

These are all equivalent to or included within the subspecies Canis lupus dingo according to this treatment. Of the 10 available not suppressed proposed names, the majority refer to the Australian dingo, one to the New Guinea singing dog, and three refer to extinct dogs that were once found in the Indonesian archipelago and Southern Asia.

For the taxon Canis dingo or Canis lupus dingo , or Canis familiaris dingo , or simply included within Canis familiaris without further differentiation, according to different authors , the following taxa are regarded as its taxonomic synonyms located in Australia: antarticus [suppressed], [29] Canis familiaris australasiae , [56] [57] [18] Canis australiae , [56] [57] [18] Canis dingoides , [57] [18] Canis macdonnellensis , [57] [18] Canis familiaris novaehollandiae.

In , James Cook took command of a scientific voyage of discovery from Britain to New Holland , which was the name for Australia at that time.

The mission made notes and collected specimens for taking back to Britain. On return to Britain, Joseph Banks commissioned George Stubbs to produce paintings based on his observations, one of which was the " Portrait of a Large Dog from New Holland" completed in In , the First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay under the command of Australia's first colonial governor, Arthur Phillip , who took ownership of a dingo [58] and in his journal made a brief description with an illustration of the "Dog of New South Wales".

In , it was discovered that Meyer's taxon Canis dingo had been named already, as the "New Holland dog" Canis antarticus [ sic ] Kerr, [5] in a little-known work, which therefore had priority over Meyer's name [60] both Kerr and Meyer had based their names on Phillip's brief description and illustration of the "Dog of New South Wales".

The New Guinea singing dog or New Guinea Highland dog was originally described as a separate species, Canis hallstromi Troughton, The "Papuan dog" was originally described as Canis familiaris var.

He noted that compared to the dingo, this dog was smaller, did not have the bushy tail, had some parts of the brain that were comparatively smaller, and was very timid and howled rather than barked.

These dogs are sometimes fed by their owners, but at other times can found on reefs at low tide hunting for crabs and small fish.

At night, along with the pigs, they clean up any refuse left in the village. Rarely do they go hunting with their owners. The "Tengger dog" was originally described as Canis tenggerana Kohlbrugge, The Dutch physician and anthropologist Jacob Kohlbrügge noted this canid while working in the Tennger Mountains in eastern Java.

It has been described as a bush-dwelling dog, although its morphology shows no wild adaptation and it has also been described as easy to domesticate.

The "Harapa dog" was originally described as Canis harappensis Prashad, The Indian zoologist Baini Prashad noted the remains of a dog that was discovered during excavations at Harappa , in modern Pakistan.

The researchers collected a wide variety of ancient domestic animal remains which had been buried for 5, years.

Also found was a dog skull; however, its location and depth was not recorded and its age is not known.

It is described as being moderately large in size and with an elongated and pointed snout. It showed a close affinity with the Indian pariah dog; however, a comparison of skull morphology showed that the pariah dog skull was closer to the Indian jackal, but the Harapa dog was closer to the Indian wolf.

It is described as being morphologically similar to Canis tenggerana from Java, and it had earlier been proposed that a population of early dogs had been more widespread across the region.

In New Guinea, no ancient New Guinea singing dog remains have been found. In , the oldest skeletal bones from the Madura Caves were directly carbon dated between 3,—3, YBP, providing firm evidence of the earliest dingo and that dingoes arrived later than had previously been proposed.

When dingoes first arrived, they would have been taken up by Indigenous Australians, who then provided a network for their swift transfer around the continent.

Based on the recorded distribution time for dogs across Tasmania and cats across Australia once Indigenous Australians had acquired them, the dispersal of dingoes from their point of landing until they occupied continental Australia is proposed to have taken only 70 years.

Based on a comparison with these early fossils, dingo morphology has not changed over thousands of years. This suggests that there has been no artificial selection over this period and that the dingo represents an early form of dog.

Studies of the dingo maternal lineage through the use of mitochondrial DNA mDNA as a genetic marker indicate that dingoes are descended from a small founding population [73] through a single founding event [19] or no more than a few founding events [21] either 5,—4, YBP or 10,—4, YBP, [19] or 18,—4, YBP, [20] depending on the mutation rate assumptions used.

They remained isolated from other dogs until the arrival of Europeans. In , a researcher compared the skull morphology of the dingo to those of other dogs and wolves and concluded that the dingo was a primitive dog that may have evolved from either the Indian wolf C.

Dingoes were thought to exist in Australia as wild dogs, rare in New Guinea, but common in Sulawesi and in northern and central Thailand. However, morphological comparisons based on skull measurements had not been undertaken on specimens to provide a better understanding.

A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. All dingo sequences in the study fell under the mDNA haplotype named A29 or were a single mutation from it.

In , a DNA study found evidence that the southeastern dingoes share ancestry with South East Asian dogs, represented by specimens from Borneo and Vietnam, which indicates that southeastern dingoes originated in South East Asia.

The northeastern dingoes share ancestry with European dogs, represented by the Australian Cattle Dog and Portuguese village dogs. The Australian Cattle Dog is believed to possess dingo ancestry, which would explain this result.

The northwestern dingo showing a relationship with European dogs when compared with Asian dogs indicates a shared ancestry with dogs from another region, such as India or Java.

The two different ancestry-sharing patterns found between the southeastern and northwestern dingo populations provides evidence that these two lineages diverged outside of Australia and had different origins in Asia.

In , an mDNA study of ancient dog fossils from the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins of southern China showed that most of the ancient dogs fell within haplogroup A1b, as do the Australian dingoes and the pre-colonial dogs of the Pacific, but in low frequency in China today.

The dogs belonging to this haplogroup were once widely distributed in southern China, then dispersed through Southeast Asia into New Guinea and Oceania, but were replaced in China 2, YBP by dogs of other lineages.

The specimen from the Tianluoshan archaeological site, Zhejiang dates to 7, YBP and possesses one haplotype that is basal to the entire haplogroup A1b lineage.

In , the first whole genome analysis of the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog was undertaken. The genetic evidence is that dingoes arrived in Australia 8, YBP and brought by an unknown human population.

The mDNA haplotype A29, or a mutation one step away, was found in all of the Australian dingoes and New Guinea singing dogs studied, indicating a common female ancestry.

Haplotype H60 had not been previously reported; however, it was one mutation away from haplotype H5 that could be found in East Asian domestic dogs.

Only the New Guinea singing dog and dingoes from northeastern Australia showed haplotype H60, which implies a genetic relationship and that the dingo reached Australia from New Guinea.

Haplotype H60 and H3 could be found among the southern Australian dingoes with H3 dominant, but haplotype H3 could only be found in the west of the continent and may represent a separate entry from the northwest.

The existence of a genetic subdivision within the dingo population has been proposed for over two decades but has not been investigated.

Their mDNA provided evidence that they all carried the same mutation inherited from a single female ancestor in the past, and so form a single clade.

Dogs from China, Bali and Kalimantan did not fall within this clade. There are two distinct populations of dingoes in Australia based on both mitochondrial and nuclear evidence.

The dingoes found today in the northwestern part of the Australian continent are estimated to have diverged 8, YBP followed by a divergence of the New Guinea singing dog 7, YBP from the dingoes found today in the southeastern part of the Australian continent.

As the New Guinea singing dog is more closely related to the southeastern dingoes, these divergences are thought to have occurred somewhere in Sahul a landmass which once included Australia, New Guinea and some surrounding islands.

These dates suggest that dingoes spread from Papua New Guinea to Australia over the land bridge at least twice. The lack of fossil evidence from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea can be explained by their tropical climate and acidic soil, as there are generally few fossils found in these regions.

In , a study of dingoes across a wider area found that the New Guinea singing dog female lineage is more closely related to the southeastern dingoes, and its male lineage is more closely related to dingoes found across the rest of the continent, indicating that the dingo lineage has a complex history.

The dates are well before the human Neolithic Expansion through the Malay Peninsula around 5, YBP, and therefore Neolithic humans were not responsible for bringing the dingo to Australia.

The Neolithic included gene flow and the expansion of agriculture, chickens, pigs and domestic dogs — none of which reached Australia.

Similar to the wolf and the husky , the dingo possesses only two copies of this gene, [51] which provides evidence that they arose before the expansion of agriculture.

Earlier studies using other genetic markers had found the indigenous Bali dog more closely aligned with the Australian dingo than to European and Asian breeds, which indicates that the Bali dog was genetically diverse with a diverse history; [89] [90] [91] however, only 1 per cent exhibited the maternal A29 mDNA haplotype.

The Bali dogs support the arrival of their ancestors with the Austronesian expansion and the arrival of other domesticates 4,—3, YBP.

Haplogroup H5 was not found in the village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, but it is common in Taiwan. One H5 specimen from Taiwan clustered with one H60 from Australia with the indication of a common ancestor 5,— YBP and coincides with the expansion of the Daic people of southern China.

The conclusion is that there were two expansions of two types of dogs.

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